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Polarization of Light - Types , Reflection by Polarization |

Polarization of Light 

Are you searching about Polarization of Light . So Here is complete information about polarization.The interference and diffraction phenomenon shows that light is wave-like in nature, but does not confirm the longitudinal or transverse nature of light waves. The polarization phenomenon shows the transverse nature of light rays. Light is composed of electromagnetic rays, it has electric and magnetic fields. Electric and magnetic fields are represented by electric and magnetic field vectors. These field vectors are perpendicular to the direction of light ray propagation. 

Polarization of Light

Definition of polarization : In physics, polarization is defined as a phenomenon caused by the wave nature of electromagnetic radiation. Sunlight travels through a vacuum to reach the Earth, which is an example of an electromagnetic wave.

Representation of polarized and unpolarized light

Consider a simple ray of light that passes perpendicular to the plane of the paper and into the paper. Electric field vectors are perpendicular to the beam propagating along the same amplitude in all possible directions, as shown in the given figure. 



Representation of polarization of light


This is the nature of unpolarized  light.Linearly polarized light is shown in the given figure. The direction of the electric field vectors is in the plane of the paper and in the figure. The direction of the electric field vectors is perpendicular to the plane of the paper. The positions of the vertical beam vectors are shown with dots. In a light ray, if the direction of propagation of the ray does not have the same dimensions as the vertical electric field, the field vectors are resolved along two vertical directions, say the x and y directions. As a result of which the electric field dimensions along the x and y directions are the same, the beam is called an unpublished ray. On the other hand, if they are not uniform, the beam is polarized with the largest resulting field width. The non-polarized light is shown in conjunction as shown in given figure

Types of polarization of light 

Polarized light are of  different types like plane polarized, circularly polarized and elliptically polarized light. So we will see about different types of polarized lights in details below 

(i) Plane polarized light : Through plane polarized light is obtained from ordinary light by passing through tourmaline crystals.

Plane polarized light

(ii) Circularly polarized light : The resulting power vector is constant in magnitude and rotates [as we see against the wave] about the direction of propagation such that the tip of the vector travels along a helical path. If the direction of rotation of the vector is in the clockwise direction, it is known as circular polarized ray.

Circularly polarized light

(iii) Elliptically polarized light:This superposition of two perpendicularly polarized light waves will produce light waves of uneven magnitude and elliptically polarized light out of phase.

Polarization by reflection

In 1809, Malus, a French scientist, found that when ordinary light is incident on the surface of a transparent medium such as glass or water, the light on reflection can be partially or completely polarized. The range of polarization of reflected light varies with the angle of incidence. In 1811, Sir David Brewster saw the extent of change polarization of reflected light by varying the angle of incidence on the surfaces of various transparent materials. He observed that for a particular angle [θi = θp, = p = polarization of the angle].

Polarization by reflection


The reflected light is fully plane polarized as shown in the angle of the given figure known as Brewster's angle or angle of polarization. The angle of polarization also varies with the material. EE Brewster's Angle for Glass

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