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# Polarization of Light

Are you searching about Polarization of Light . So Here is complete information about polarization.The interference and diffraction phenomenon shows that light is wave-like in nature, but does not confirm the longitudinal or transverse nature of light waves. The polarization phenomenon shows the transverse nature of light rays. Light is composed of electromagnetic rays, it has electric and magnetic fields. Electric and magnetic fields are represented by electric and magnetic field vectors. These field vectors are perpendicular to the direction of light ray propagation.

Definition of polarization : In physics, polarization is defined as a phenomenon caused by the wave nature of electromagnetic radiation. Sunlight travels through a vacuum to reach the Earth, which is an example of an electromagnetic wave.

## Representation of polarized and unpolarized light

Consider a simple ray of light that passes perpendicular to the plane of the paper and into the paper. Electric field vectors are perpendicular to the beam propagating along the same amplitude in all possible directions, as shown in the given figure.

This is the nature of unpolarized  light.Linearly polarized light is shown in the given figure. The direction of the electric field vectors is in the plane of the paper and in the figure. The direction of the electric field vectors is perpendicular to the plane of the paper. The positions of the vertical beam vectors are shown with dots. In a light ray, if the direction of propagation of the ray does not have the same dimensions as the vertical electric field, the field vectors are resolved along two vertical directions, say the x and y directions. As a result of which the electric field dimensions along the x and y directions are the same, the beam is called an unpublished ray. On the other hand, if they are not uniform, the beam is polarized with the largest resulting field width. The non-polarized light is shown in conjunction as shown in given figure

## Types of polarization of light

Polarized light are of  different types like plane polarized, circularly polarized and elliptically polarized light. So we will see about different types of polarized lights in details below

(i) Plane polarized light : Through plane polarized light is obtained from ordinary light by passing through tourmaline crystals.

(ii) Circularly polarized light : The resulting power vector is constant in magnitude and rotates [as we see against the wave] about the direction of propagation such that the tip of the vector travels along a helical path. If the direction of rotation of the vector is in the clockwise direction, it is known as circular polarized ray.

(iii) Elliptically polarized light:This superposition of two perpendicularly polarized light waves will produce light waves of uneven magnitude and elliptically polarized light out of phase.

## Polarization by reflection

In 1809, Malus, a French scientist, found that when ordinary light is incident on the surface of a transparent medium such as glass or water, the light on reflection can be partially or completely polarized. The range of polarization of reflected light varies with the angle of incidence. In 1811, Sir David Brewster saw the extent of change polarization of reflected light by varying the angle of incidence on the surfaces of various transparent materials. He observed that for a particular angle [θi = θp, = p = polarization of the angle].

The reflected light is fully plane polarized as shown in the angle of the given figure known as Brewster's angle or angle of polarization. The angle of polarization also varies with the material. EE Brewster's Angle for Glass

### About N-Type and P-Type Semiconductor | Materials | Example |

Here you will know about  n type and p type semiconductor in details. You can already see about bonding in semiconductor . N type and P type semiconductor is used in electronic appliances.which is the basis of working of all the electronic devices.So lets discuss in this given topic in the details. N type and P Type Semiconductor When some impurities added to the pure semiconductor then it becomes extrinsic semiconductor and this process of adding impurities is known as doping.  Now it depends on the which type of impurities it added to the semiconductor (two types of impurities can be added to semiconductor pentavalent or trivalent). n-type semiconductor : If impurity that is added to the pure semiconductor is a pentavalent ( which has five valance electron ) then it is called n-type semi conductor. p-type semiconductor : If trivalent impurity is added to the semiconductor then it becomes p-type semi conductor. ( Note-List of  n type and p type semiconductor material is given below.

### Biasing of p–n Junction | Forward and Reverse-biased |

Biasing the p-n junction means applying some external voltage to both sides of the p-n junction. Reverse-biased junction and forward-biased junction are two types of biased junction. You should have also good understanding of  N-Type and P-Type Semiconductor before moving towards this topic. Biasing of p–n Junction  Biasing of a p–n junction  means uses of some external voltage across the two sides of the p–n junction. It is divided into two groups  Forward-biased junction :  When the p-side of junction  is connected to the positive terminal of a battery and the n-side of junction is connected to the negative terminal, the p–n junction is said to be a forward-biased junction.  Reverse-biased junction  :If the positive terminal of the battery is connected to the n-side of junction and the negative terminal on the p-side, the p–n junction is said to be a reverse-biased junction. Now we will see about forward and reverse-biased junction in detail.  Related Topic    Bonding in semiconduc

### Engineers Files Explained | Types of file

Today we will learn about engineers files explained, as we know hand tools are used to remove small amounts of material, usually from small areas of the workpiece.   Do you know why hand tools are used ?Hand tools are used because of following reason: If no machine is available,  The workpiece is too large to go on a machine  The shape is too intricate or simply that it would be too expensive to set up a machine to do the work. As you know the necessity of a hand tools now we will know about a hand tool , engineer's files. Engineer’s files Files are used to perform a variety of tasks, from simple removal of sharp edges to producing complex shapes where use of the device is impractical.Files can be obtained in a variety of shapes and in lengths from 150 mm to 350 mm. Single-cut file: When a file has a single series of teeth cut across its face it is called  single-cut file ,Figure of single-cut file is shown below. double-cut file: When a file has double series of teeth cut across