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### Bonding in semiconductors,Bond model

Today we will see about Bonding in semiconductors or Bond model of semiconductor .A semiconductor atom that has four valence electrons and four holes requires four more electrons to completely fill the outermost orbit (the total number must be eight). Atoms in a crystal they are arranged so closely that the electrons orbit in valence layers of two atoms. Each valence shell electron fills the hole of the neighboring atom as shown in the given figure.

#### A semiconductor have how many valance electron ?

A semiconductor has need of four valence electron ans also require four holes to complete outer most orbit.

## Bonding in semiconductors or Bond model

In the given figure, the atoms of the silicon material is shown. For simple understanding, only the outermost orbitals of atoms are shown. The exchange of electrons from neighboring atoms to satisfy the requirement of eight electrons in the valence shell on one atom is called a covalent bond.Due to the covalent bond, that is, the bond through the exchange of electrons, it is observed that the valence layers of all the electrons are full, that is, they all have eight electrons in their outermost orbit.
At absolute zero temperature there will be no free electrons in the crystal.
However, although electrons are attached to their atoms due to the covalent bond, an increase in temperature breaks part of the covalent bond and releases some electrons.

 Bonding in semiconductors

#### Intrinsic or Pure Semiconductors

A semiconductor material, silicon or germanium where the electrons are attached to their respective atoms and are not free to conduct electric current, are called intrinsic or pure semiconductors. When the temperature of the crystal rises, external energy in the form of heat is applied to the semiconductor material.

#### What is a hole in semiconductor ? Bonding in semiconductors

This thermal energy allows the valence electrons to acquire enough energy to separate from the atoms and become free electrons. "When an electron comes out to free itself, it leaves an empty space called a hole."

#### What is electron-hole pair in semi conductor ?

We are discussing the topic of Bonding in semiconductors or Bond model of semiconductor .

An electron-hole pair

"For every free electron there will be a corresponding hole produced, which is called an electron-hole pair."

what happen when temperature of semi-conductor is increase ?

A large number of electron-hole pairs of are formed due to the increase in the temperature of the semiconductor.

### Recombination in semiconductor

When the electrons are released, they are attracted to and fall into a hole created by another electron. This fusion of electrons and free holes is called recombination.The time of creation of a free electron and its fall in a hole is very fast and the necessary time is of the order of nanoseconds. Therefore, pure silicon or germanium is not of much use in electronics, except for manufacturing heat or light sensitive resistors.

#### What is extrinsic semiconductor ?

The process of adding a quintessential element or a pure element to a semiconductor element is called doping. Doped semiconductor is called extrinsic semiconductor. The doping material that is added to a pure semiconductor is also known as an impurity material. Extrinsic semiconductors are named n-type semiconductors or p-type semiconductors, respectively, depending on whether a pentavalent or trivalent  doping material is added.

#### Doping in semi conductor

Conductivity of semiconductor materials can be increased by adding some amount of other material which have three or five valence electrons.So the process of adding these material is called doping and the final material which is formed by doping is called extrinsic semiconductors.

#### Conclusion

I hope this information about Bonding in semiconductors or Bond model of semiconductor will help you to provide correct information by me and our team ,this will definitely help you to enhance your knowledge about bonding in semiconductor .

### About N-Type and P-Type Semiconductor | Materials | Example |

Here you will know about  n type and p type semiconductor in details. You can already see about bonding in semiconductor . N type and P type semiconductor is used in electronic appliances.which is the basis of working of all the electronic devices.So lets discuss in this given topic in the details. N type and P Type Semiconductor When some impurities added to the pure semiconductor then it becomes extrinsic semiconductor and this process of adding impurities is known as doping.  Now it depends on the which type of impurities it added to the semiconductor (two types of impurities can be added to semiconductor pentavalent or trivalent). n-type semiconductor : If impurity that is added to the pure semiconductor is a pentavalent ( which has five valance electron ) then it is called n-type semi conductor. p-type semiconductor : If trivalent impurity is added to the semiconductor then it becomes p-type semi conductor. ( Note-List of  n type and p type semiconductor material is given below.

### Biasing of p–n Junction | Forward and Reverse-biased |

Biasing the p-n junction means applying some external voltage to both sides of the p-n junction. Reverse-biased junction and forward-biased junction are two types of biased junction. You should have also good understanding of  N-Type and P-Type Semiconductor before moving towards this topic. Biasing of p–n Junction  Biasing of a p–n junction  means uses of some external voltage across the two sides of the p–n junction. It is divided into two groups  Forward-biased junction :  When the p-side of junction  is connected to the positive terminal of a battery and the n-side of junction is connected to the negative terminal, the p–n junction is said to be a forward-biased junction.  Reverse-biased junction  :If the positive terminal of the battery is connected to the n-side of junction and the negative terminal on the p-side, the p–n junction is said to be a reverse-biased junction. Now we will see about forward and reverse-biased junction in detail.  Related Topic    Bonding in semiconduc

### Engineers Files Explained | Types of file

Today we will learn about engineers files explained, as we know hand tools are used to remove small amounts of material, usually from small areas of the workpiece.   Do you know why hand tools are used ?Hand tools are used because of following reason: If no machine is available,  The workpiece is too large to go on a machine  The shape is too intricate or simply that it would be too expensive to set up a machine to do the work. As you know the necessity of a hand tools now we will know about a hand tool , engineer's files. Engineer’s files Files are used to perform a variety of tasks, from simple removal of sharp edges to producing complex shapes where use of the device is impractical.Files can be obtained in a variety of shapes and in lengths from 150 mm to 350 mm. Single-cut file: When a file has a single series of teeth cut across its face it is called  single-cut file ,Figure of single-cut file is shown below. double-cut file: When a file has double series of teeth cut across