# Electromagnetism and Electromagnetic Induction

Introduction

#### It was also observed that changing the direction flowing through the conductor changed the direction of the force lines.A few years after Faraday's discovery, another England scientist discovered that a magnetic field could create an electric current in a conductor. When there is a change in the flux linkage in the conductor or coil, the EMF is induced in it.The incident is credited to Faraday who established the famous laws of electromagnetic induction. You will see that most electrical machines and equipment are used observations and discoveries made as described above.

what is electromagnetism ?

By using a soft magnetic material such as wire-wrapped or wound coils around the iron core we can produce very strong electromagnets for use in many different types of electrical applications. This use of a coil of wire produces a connection between electricity and magnetism that gives us another form of magnetism called electromagnetism.

what is electromagnetic induction ?

Electromagnetic induction is a process in which a conductor is placed in a particular position and the magnetic field is varied or the magnetic field is constant and a conductor is in motion. It produces a volt or EMF (electromotive force) across the electrical conductor.

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#### Cork Screw Rule

Consider a right-handed screw located at one end of a current-carrying conductor and rotated in a clockwise direction. If the elevation of the screw indicates the direction of current, then the direction in which the screw is rotated will indicate the direction of the lines of force around the conductor.This is known as cork screw rule.
The given figure shows that two current-carrying conductors work side by side to form a resulting magnetic field.

### Magnetic Field Around a Coil

A coil is formed by twisting a wire of some cross section around a former (a hollow cylinder made of some non-magnetic material such as bakelite, plastic, etc.). Such a coil is often called a solenoid. The current is allowed to flow through such a coil, a magnetic field is produced by the coil. The direction of flux produced by a current-carrying coil is determined by applying the right-hand-grip rule.
The given figure shows a current carrying coil. If we hold the coil with our right hand in such a way that four fingers bend towards the direction of current flow through the coil, the thumb will be Indicate the direction of the resulting flow produced.All four fingers are bent in the direction of current through the coil. The direction in which the thumb points is the direction of flow. In the figure we have shown a cross-sectional view of the same coil.

For the direction of current flow through the coil, the cross-section is shown by applying the cross and dot convention. The upper part of the coil turns 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, indicating that the current is entering while they come out from the other side as shown in the bottom conductor cross-section.By applying the cork screw rule, we can also determine the direction of the resulting magnetic field and show the formation of the north and south poles. If the direction of current flow is through
the coil is upside down, the direction of the magnetic lines of force will be opposite, and hence the position of the north and south poles will change.
If we apply some alternating voltage across the coil as shown in the figure. The polarity of the power supply will change every half cycle of the applied voltage. If a sinusoidal AC supply is provided, both the magnitude as well as the direction of current flow will change. As a result, the magnitude of the magnetic field produced will start at zero value and reach its maximum value, then meet
Reduced to zero again, and then turned negative. The direction of flow produced will change every half cycle of current flow. Magnetic field whose magnitude changes as well as its direction is called a vibratory alternating magnetic field. In the case of a DC supply, the magnetic field produced will be of constant magnitude and fixed polarity.

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#### A Current-carrying Conductor Placed in a Magnetic Field

It experiences a force when the conductor carrying a conductor is placed in a magnetic field. The force acts in one direction for both the magnetic field and the current.In the given figure a conductor is shown perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field. In the cross-sectional view such a conductor is shown by a small circle.The dot inside the small circle indicates that the current is flowing towards the observer. The conductor will experience a force in an upward direction as shown.If the direction of current through the conductor is reversed, the force on the conductor will be downward.

The force on the conductor will depend on the flux, φ or flux density. This force will also depend on the effective length of the magnetic field.

### EMF INDUCED IN A CONDUCTOR

In terms of length of conductor, L and velocity of conductor, B, E in a magnetic ﬁeld of flux density, the induced EMF in a conductor, E is calculated as e = B lv sinθ V

To establish the above relation, let us consider a single conductor represented by a small cross-sectional. A large portion of the magnetic field of B Wb/m2 is seen as shown in the given figure.
The area swept by the moving conductor is L dx m2. The flux density is B Wb/m2.

## Application of Electromagnetic Induction.

As we know electromagnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force. It has many applications which is listed below .

1. In electrical components : It has play a very vital role in electric components. Like if you seen a drone , in which motor is used that run due to electromagnetic induction.

2.In Inductors : It found their application in the inductors.

3.In transformers : It also involve in the transformer's working principle

4.In electric motors : All electric motor works on the principle of electromagnetic induction.

5.In Generators: Generators which you used in your home for generation of electric current has also work on the principle of electromagnetic induction.

#### Conclusion

I hope you like Details about Electromagnetism and Electromagnetic Induction and also application of electromagnetic induction that i share with you if you have any question please comment us. we will try to give you my best answer from my expert side.

### Biasing of p–n Junction | Forward and Reverse-biased |

Biasing the p-n junction means applying some external voltage to both sides of the p-n junction. Reverse-biased junction and forward-biased junction are two types of biased junction. You should have also good understanding of  N-Type and P-Type Semiconductor before moving towards this topic.

Biasing of p–n Junction Biasing of a p–n junction means uses of some external voltage across the two sides of the p–n junction. It is divided into two groups
Forward-biased junction : When the p-side of junction  is connected to the positive terminal of a battery and the n-side of junction is connected to the negative terminal, the p–n junction is said to be a forward-biased junction. Reverse-biased junction :If the positive terminal of the battery is connected to the n-side of junction and the negative terminal on the p-side, the p–n junction is said to be a reverse-biased junction.Now we will see about forward and reverse-biased junction in detail.
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