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About N-Type and P-Type Semiconductor | Materials | Example |

Here you will know about n type and p type semiconductor in details. You can already see about bonding in semiconductor.N type and P type semiconductor is used in electronic appliances.which is the basis of working of all the electronic devices.So lets discuss in this given topic in the details.

N-Type and P-Type Semiconductor

N type and P Type Semiconductor

When some impurities added to the pure semiconductor then it becomes extrinsic semiconductor and this process of adding impurities is known as doping. 
Now it depends on the which type of impurities it added to the semiconductor (two types of impurities can be added to semiconductor pentavalent or trivalent).
  • n-type semiconductor : If impurity that is added to the pure semiconductor is a pentavalent ( which has five valance electron ) then it is called n-type semi conductor.
  • p-type semiconductor : If trivalent impurity is added to the semiconductor then it becomes p-type semi conductor.
( Note-List of n type and p type semiconductor material is given below.)

It is very important topic of electronics so Students are advised during lecture to understand the working mechanism of the p-n junction to well understand the functioning of all electronic devices and circuits.

p–n junction

When n type and p type semiconductor material  are joined together then it forms p-n junction.

Q. How p-n junction is form ?
Ans: When when n and p type semiconductor material joined together , then p-n junction formed.

N-type and p-type semiconductor material.

N-types and p-types semiconductor material plays very vital role in the industry of electronics from a small card reader to a space system's operating system .This material play a important role.

N-Type Semiconductor Material

A N-type semiconductor is constructed with a pure silicon or germanium crystal that has five valence electrons. Antimony, arsenic and phosphorus are pentavalent materials, you can see these element in periodic table for better understanding.

N-Types semiconductor materials: Antimony, arsenic, and phosphorous this element is used for doping with pure silicon or germanium.

N-Type Semiconductor Material
n-type semi conductor material diagram

Q. Which material is doped or added to from n-type semiconductor? or example of n-type semi conductor.
Ans: Antimony, arsenic and phosphorus are pentavalent materials are doped to form n-type semiconductors.

Some important point about n-type semiconductor material

  • It may be noted that the n-type semiconductor thus formed remains electrically neutral, that is, neither positively charged nor negatively charged. Free electrons equal the total number of protons in the nucleus of atoms.
  • The extra impurity material donates one free electron per atom to the outer semiconductor, and is therefore called the donor atom.
  • An n-type semiconductor is the majority of charge carrier electrons and minority charge carriers are thermally generated holes.
  • An n-type semiconductor is most of the charge-bearing electrons, and the minority charge-carriers are thermally generated holes.

P-Type Semiconductor Material

P-Type material is formed when silicon or germanium crystal is added with a small percentage of trivalent impurity material like boron, gallium or indium.

Q. Which material is doped or added to from p-type semiconductor? or example of p-type semi conductor.
Ans: p-type semiconductor is formed by adding trivalent impurity material like boron, gallium or indium.

P-Type Semiconductor Material
p-type semi conductor material diagram

When covalent bonds are formed between boron having three valence electrons with silicon having four valence electrons, there will be shortage of one electron in the covalent bonds.

Similar to the n-type material, the p-type material is also electrically neutral. The total number of electrons in the orbitals is equal to the total number of protons in the nucleus of the atoms. Although the amount of impurity content is small, the total number of atoms produces a large number of holes in the crystal. Therefore, a p-type material will have many holes and an n-type material will have many free electrons.
Electrons and holes have charge carriers. The holes in the P-type material are the majority charge carriers.When the temperature increases, free electrons band holes are formed.These would be minority charge carriers due to the small number of thermally generated electrons.


This information about n type and p type semiconductor and n type and p type semiconductor materials are provided for you will help you to enhance your knowledge about this topic.


  1. You explained n-type and p-type semiconductors very well and yes it is the basis of working of all the electronic devices. Like, A diode, which is a combination of n-type and p-type semiconductors extensively used as a rectifier. Transistors are manufactured by keeping a layer of one type of semiconductor between two layers of another type of semiconductor. NPN and PNP types of transistors are used to detect or amplify radio or audio signals. Although it is a vast topic of electronics stream its fundamentals also taught in Secondary Science Tuition. Thanks for sharing such a helpful post.


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